Thursday, May 21, 2020
Table manner and Gift giving: The difference between China and Australia business communication Report prepared for Maurice Benson, Manager, International Business Practice Group Prepared by Xuejiao Jia, Manager assistant, International Business Practice Group Email of Transmittal To: Maurice.Benson@abcd.com.au From: Xuejiao.firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: report-commissioned by IBPG Date: 20/10/2014 Dear Maurice Thank you to fix me up with the International Business Program Group. As a new staff, this opportunity is very important for me to prove my worth to our company. In your last email, you asked me to write a report to provide a guideline and explain the intercultural communication between my country and Australia. I haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To begin with the banquet, the host will toast to everyone, and the guest should stand and drink from their cup. After that, during the banquet, the host will toast to everyone, it is very impolite to refuse to drink. According to Eugene Cooper (2007), the most important rule of Chinese table manners is the seating arrangements. If a banquet is a simple dinner which just have one or two tables in a room, then the highest ranked person should sit in the place which facing the entrance, as it has the best view of the room(Rina B 2011). However, if it is a big banquet, the most respectful table is in the middle as it is the central and has the best view of the banquet. In addition, all the people will focus on the central table when the reader begins to toast. 2.2 Giving a gift In China, giving a gift is not always regard as a bribe. On the other hand, it indicates that you are interested in building a relationship. When giving a gift in Chine, the color of the wrap should be carefully choose. In china, the red color is regarded as a lucky color, gold means wealth; pink and yellow are also acceptable. However, avoid using black or white wrap as it used in funeral. Beside, do not just giving a gift to one person without giving to the others, which would be considered as very impolite (UNSW Press 2008). 3 Conclusion 3.1Table manner Both meeting andShow MoreRelatedNonverbal Communication in Foreign Culture vs My Culture1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFind examples of the types of nonverbal communication that are specific to a foreignÃ culture and compare these to your own culture.Ã Ã Analyse how the nonverbal communication of both cultures could impact upon business dealings between the two. Nonverbal communication is the act of communicating without speaking, and instead involves the use of gestures, facial expressions and body language and is an important part of how people communicate, sometimes more powerful than verbal interaction, and makesRead MoreImpact Of Globalization On The Global Economy1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthroughout the past years. 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The report illustrates three recommendations base on the following situations: Meet with your clientsRead MoreThe Importance Of Developing Good International Relationship Is Increasing As Technology And Competition Arises1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the world of business, the importance of developing good international relationship is increasing as technology and competition arises. Today, there is no country that feels self-sufficient enough to not do negotiations with diverse countries across the world. Nevertheless, certain negotiations may experience conflicts while communicating since the agreement is being done by people from different countries. The most common issue that humans experience while communicating with people around theRead MoreEssay On Globalisation1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshas globalisation changed over the past 30 years? Globalisation has changed over the past 30 years due to changes made between technology, such as transportation and communications. 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Australia ranked as the second easiest country to do business and it offered some strong future growth opportunities for the Chinese herbal tea since Australia has the long-standing business relationships with China and the healthy drink became more and more popular. Competition within the herbal tea market also remainsRead MoreCulture of Australia and Corporate Social Responsibility906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesowns businesses in China had practiced in CSR programme during one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most horrifying disasters Ã¢â¬â the Sichuan earthquake which happened on 12th May 2008. BreadTalk specially created Peace Panda, a Panda Bear shaped bun with four different expressions symbolising the terror of the 7.8 magnitude earthquake as a support to help the disaster. The organisation contributed 100% of the proceeds from sale of Ã¢â¬Å"Peace PandaÃ¢â¬ to the Chinese Embassy and Red Cross SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËChina Earthquake AppealRead MoreCross Cultural Management Between China And Australia1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmanagement between China and Australia will be provided. Discussion of cultural frameworks Geert Hofstede developed the widely applied HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural dimensions, which mainly focuses on how different countries with different cultural backgrounds handle different anthropological problems that occur in cross-cultural communication (Hofstede 1980). The first five HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s dimensions will be discussed in following paragraphs. It should be clear that there is no good and bad between two elements
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The billion pound fragrances market in the United Kingdom is highly competitive and is always adapting to their environment. Despite the recession, the fragrances market have managed to boost their market value and thrive in the slowly recovering economy. To stay in business, it is imperative for marketing managers in fragrances to acknowledge issues in their macro and micro environments, such as the current economic state, the behaviour of consumers and governmental issues revolving around the perfume industry. In spite of the slow recovery from the 2008 recession, market value of fragrances have increased 25.6% over the last 5 years (Key Note, 2013, pp. 15). The buying power of consumers and household disposable income is strengthening in the UK, even though unemployment rates and inflation are rising. Many would assume the financial condition of the macro-environment would result in consumers cutting spending on nonessential goods like perfumes. Surprisingly, buyers of the in dustryÃ¢â¬â¢s microenvironment view fragrances as necessary essentials and premium fragrances are driving the market value upwards. The increased disposable income has aided in the success of premium fragrance sales due to patronsÃ¢â¬â¢ willingness to indulge in expensive perfumes than switch to cheaper products. Marketers must understand that fragrances are relatively in-elastic demand to their consumers and in order to compete in the marketplace through the recovering economy, brands need to advertiseShow MoreRelatedEssay on Abercrombie and Fitch, Strategic Managment2096 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageshas been denominated as one of the most important brands in the retailing business. ABERCROMBIE AND FITCH The company Abercrombie Fitch (AF) is a retailer of informal clothes and accessories. These accessories include including cologne and perfume for men and women. AF has its operations based in more than 300 stores that at the same time incorporate abercrombie stores for children; Hollister (Southern Californian style) and the new brand Gilly Hicks for underwear (Abercrombie and FitchRead MoreMarketing essay on Chanel4291 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesJanuary 2013 Markets, Marketing and Strategy Report MMS Report, 1 January 2013 Markets Marketing and Strategy Report Executiv summary : This report provides an analysis and evaluation of ChanelÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategies and of its place in the Luxury market today. Methods of analysis include three theorical models that help to understand the complexity of Chanel business environment and its main resources. Those three models are: PESTEL, SWOT and 5 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s forces. In thisRead MoreEssay on Cosmetics Industry9878 Words Ã |Ã 40 Pages4842 Group Case 2 Retail Specialty Cosmetics Industry Analysis March 19, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Industry Type Degree of Industry Concentration Opportunities and Threats Opportunities Threats Past and Projected Market Growth Rate Competitive Analysis New Entrants Substitutes Rivalry within the Industry Suppliers Buyers Driving Forces Analysis Industry Key Success Factors Financial Analysis
Demonstrate an appreciation for the aesthetic principles that guide or govern the whitetail arts through using oral, written, or visual means to communicate an informed personal reaction to works of theatre. (Communication Skills) 4. Show social responsibility through intercultural study and discovery of regional, national and/or global artistic traditions In theatre. We will write a custom essay sample on Unit Two Study Guide Fall or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Social Responsibility) The Actor 1. What does Thespian mean? Thespian means Actor. 2. Describe the acting profession as stated in your book? Most bewildering profession. Can be extraordinarily rewarding but also most tough and demanding. Takes incredible sacrifices from every area of life: Financial, virtual, mental, and physical. 3. Define representation training/acting. Acting emanates from somewhere INSIDE the actor. Studies the role closely, uses imagination, lives the life of the character. 4. Define presentational training/acting. Actor presents something to the audience. 5. What Is The Method? 7 Elements: Cadenza, Public solitude, Subtext of meaning, Artistic communion, Emotional memory, Physical actions, Hard work 6. What school was founded by Elli Kane and who was this schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s most influential teacher? ActorÃ¢â¬ s Studio: Lee Strangers 7. What two features are required to make a good actor? Acting from the Inside and Acting from the Outside. ActorÃ¢â¬â¢s instrument, ActorÃ¢â¬â¢s method of approaching a role 8. What are the three parts to the actorÃ¢â¬â¢s instrument/self? Body, Voice, Imagination 9. Inhalation, practically understood as an element of voice, is sometimes seen to be mystically equivalent to what? Inspiration 10. What are the elements of voice? Breathing, Phonated, Resonance 11. What are the elements of speech? Articulation, Pronunciation, Phrasing 12. What is projection? 13. What is resonance? The sympathetic vibration, Ã¢â¬Å"ResoundingÃ¢â¬ of the voice, as it is heard in the throat, the chest, and the head 14. What is the major psychological component of the actorÃ¢â¬â¢s instrument? Imagination 15. What is cadenza? The CharacterÃ¢â¬â¢s Problem 16. What are the three stages of the actorÃ¢â¬â¢s routine? Audition, Rehearsal, and Performance 17. What is an audition? Primary process in which acting roles are awarded. Actor has opportunity to demonstrate to the director how well he or she can fulfill a role. 18. What is blocking? Stage movements 19. What is stage business? Stage actions Ã¢â¬â scripted or seemingly unconscious physical behaviors 20. What is subtext? The unspoken and underscored character goals hidden beneath the lines. The Playwright 1. What is the most important trait of the playwright? Independence. 2. Why is every person a playwright? Because we dream. 3. What is the core of every play? Action 4. What are the playwrightÃ¢â¬â¢s two tools? Dialogue and Physical Action. 5. Explain the concept of continuous and linear in a play. Means Continuous in Structure and Linear in chronology. Point to point, cause and effect storytelling. Remains basic architecture to most popular and serious plays. 6. Explain the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Intrigue draws us into the world of the play; credibility keeps us there. Ã¢â¬ Intrigue demanding surprise, credibility demanding consistency. They generate a kind of believable wonder; Credibility alone will not suffice to make a play interesting, and intrigue alone cannot make a incredible play palatable. 7. What is Ã¢â¬Å"richnessÃ¢â¬ in playwright? Leaves a sense of satisfaction; Richness of detail and richness or dimension 8. Explain Ã¢â¬Å"depth of character. Requires that every character possess an independence of intention, expression, and motivation. 9. What is gravity in a play? The central theme is one of serious and lasting significance in humanists spiritual, oral, or intellectual life. 10. Who is David Mate? Successful Playwright 1 . Name and understand the four major staging formats. Proscenium, Arena, Thrust, Black Box 2. W hat is another name for the picture frame stage? Proscenium 3. What is a scenery centered staging format? 4. What are the actor centered rather than scenery centered type staging formats? Thrust, Arena, and Black Box 5. What type of stage dispenses with all scenery except floor treatment, furniture, and out of the way staging or hanging pieces to focus attention on the actors? Arena 6. Describe a black box stage area. Simple space able to adapt to a variety of staging styles. Ã¢â¬Å"Experimental AtmosphereÃ¢â¬ 7. What is realistic scenery? Attempts to depict, often in great detail, a specific time and place in the real world where the plays events are presumed to take place. 8. What is metaphorical scenery? Favors visual images that seek to evoke the productionÃ¢â¬â¢s intended theme, mood, or social/political implications 9. What is a flat? Portable framed wall sections, usually represent walls and occasionally the ceilings of a real room 10. What is a cyclorama? Hanging fabric stretched between upper/lower pipes and curved to cover back and sides of the stage. Colored with lights 11. What is a scrim? Can make things appear and disappear; Loosely woven gauzy fabric, lit from the front, solid, lit from the back, see through 12. What is stage machinery? Give examples. Anything that moves; Fly systems, wagons, elevators, wagons 13. When was electricity introduced into American theatres for lighting? 1879 14. What are the primary considerations of lighting design? Visibility and Focus 15. What were the first theatrical costumes? Ceremonial vestments 6. What was the ancient and original use of costume? Separate Actor from Audience 17. What are the four primary functions of modern costume design? Ceremonial Magic, Social and Cultural values of the world being portrayed, individuality of each character, wearable clothing for the actor 18. What function does makeup serve? Evoke or highlight psychological traits, illustrate character, simplify and embolden actorÃ¢â¬â¢s features 19. In regards to makeup, what is the face considered? Canvas The Director 1. What are the tasks of the director? What are the three eras of the director? Teacher, Realism, Anti-Realism 3. What are Andre Antoine and Constantine Statisticians primarily known as and what was their primary focus in the theatre? Naturalists. Sought to make the theatre a powerful social and artistic instrument for the expression of truth 4. Who is generally regarded as the first modern director? Saxes Engineer 5. What are styling directors? Unrestrained by rigid formulas w/ respect to verisimilitude or realistic behavior 6. Who founded the Theatre dÃ¢â¬â¢art in Paris in 1890? Paul Fort 7. Who evolved his theatre of biomedical constructivism in Moscow? Absolved Empowered 8. What is the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s primary responsibility? To envision the main lines of the production and to provide the artistic leadership to realize that vision 9. What are the roles of the producer? Finance the production, create and manage the budget, choosing and acquiring the theatre facility, establishing the plays rehearsal and performance dates, handle legal and business aspects, and oversee publicity, casting, ticketing, etc. 10. What is the criterion for play selection? How to cite Unit Two Study Guide Fall, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
The survival instincts of the first colonist who landed in Jamestown compared to Massachusetts colony and religious direction of the two colonies had opposite theories. Ã¢â¬Å"(The people in the Jamestown colony predominantly protestant thought in a business sense exporting cash crops, rather that growing food to try and survive for a long time. The people of Jamestown tried to replicate the English way, which was every one for them alone the people of Jamestown werent very motivated to involve themselves in the community. )Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 34).In contrast to this view the Puritans came to Massachusetts Bay to practice their own modified Anglicanism religion, the second generation of Puritans came to Massachusetts to pursue wealth. The men came to fish and make a profit off the plentiful amount of fish that the seas off the coast of the new world had to offer. Ã¢â¬Å"The churches of every Puritan generation introduced a church tax that required the colonists to pay a percent of their income to the church as an act of graciousness to god. We will write a custom essay sample on The people or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 43). Ã¢â¬Å"(The puritans like the French traded with the Indians for goods that were unique and foreign to the English people.These items sold for a large sum across the sea in England, and at the neighboring Plymouth Colony benefited largely from these trades. )Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 43). Ã¢â¬Å"Growing cash crops and trading with the natives was easy for the Plymouth colony because when they settled at Plymouth, they learned to cultivate cornfields from the natives and other crops that they could use to survive on. Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 43). With these fields already planted and ready for harvesting, the settlers could focus on paying off the debt they owed to England, and could focus more on increase their own profits.Although the first Puritans came to Massachusetts Bay to practice their own modified Anglicanism religion, the second generation of Puritans came to Massachusetts to pursue wealth. The men came to fish and make a profit off the plentiful amount of fish that the seas off the coast of the new world had to offer. The churches of every Puritan generation introduced a church tax that required the colonists to pay a percent of their income to the church as an act of graciousness to god. Ã¢â¬Å"One of the biggest differences in the two colonies was their government.In Virginia, the House of Burgess could make laws and levy taxes, though the governor or company council in England could veto any of their decisions in its early stages of government. Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 36). Ã¢â¬Å"(In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the General Court gradually shifted political authority away from the governor and into the hands of the towns representatives. )Ã¢â¬ (Brinkley, 2007 p. 42). In spite of all of these differences, in some ways, these colonies were very similar. For instance, Native Americans had a large influence on both colonies. The settlers learned farming practices from them and traded with them. The Native Americans were happy to coexist until these colonies started growing and pushing them off of the land that they had lived off of for generations. Both colonies found the same trouble with fighting the Native Americans for land and resources. They both wanted to pursue a life of wealth, in money, land, and social status. Although some colonists came in part to practice their own variation of a religion, all of the colonists came to make a profit in some way. References : Brinkley, A. (2007). American History: A Survey, 12e. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How to Conjugate the Verb Comprare in Italian Some definitions of Ã¢â¬Å"comprareÃ¢â¬ include, to buy, and to purchase. What to Know About Ã¢â¬Å"ComprareÃ¢â¬ : ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a regular verb, so it follows the typical -are verb ending patternItÃ¢â¬â¢s a transitive verb, so it takes a direct object.The infinito is Ã¢â¬Å"comprareÃ¢â¬ .The participio passato is Ã¢â¬Å"compratoÃ¢â¬ .The gerund form is Ã¢â¬Å"comprandoÃ¢â¬ .The past gerund form is Ã¢â¬Å"avendo compratoÃ¢â¬ . Indicativo/Indicative Il presente io compro noi compriamo tu compri voi comprate lui, lei, Lei compra essi, Loro comprano Esempi Oggi compro un poÃ¢â¬â¢ di pane ed un etto di prosciutto. - Today IÃ¢â¬â¢m buying a bit of bread and an ounce of prosciutto. Il passato prossimo io ho comprato noi abbiamo comprato tu hai comprato voi avete comprato lui, lei, Lei, ha comprato essi, Loro hanno comprato Esempi Hai appena comprato un regalo per Stefano? - Have you already bought a gift for Stefano? LÃ¢â¬â¢imperfetto io compravo noi compravamo tu compravi voi compravate lui, lei, Lei comprava essi, Loro compravano Esempi Ogni sabato, compravo un gelato alla fragola. - Every Saturday, I bought a strawberry gelato. Il trapassato prossimo io avevo comprato noi avevamo comprato tu avevi comprato voi avevate comprato lui, lei, Lei aveva comprato essi, Loro avevano comprato Esempi Ti ricordi il libro di grammatica che avevi comprato due anni fa? LÃ¢â¬â¢ho ritrovato! - Do you remember the grammar that you bought two years ago? I found it! Il passato remoto io comprai noi comprammo tu comprasti voi compraste lui, lei, Lei compr essi, Loro comprarono Esempi ComprÃ ² delle bottiglie di vino. - He bought some bottles of wine. Il trapassato remoto io ebbi comprato noi avemmo comprato tu avesti comprato voi aveste comprato lui, lei, Lei ebbe comprato essi, Loro ebbero comprato TIP: This tense is rarely used, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry too much about mastering it. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find it in very sophisticated writing. Il futuro semplice io comprer noi compreremo tu comprerai voi comprerete lui, lei, Lei comprer essi, Loro compreranno Esempi ComprerÃ ² una casa in Toscana! Ã - I will buy a house in Tuscany. Il futuro anteriore io avr comprato noi avremo comprato tu avrai comprato voi avrete comprato lui, lei, Lei avr comprato essi, Loro avranno comprato Esempi Avr comprato una nuova macchina! - He must have bought a new car! Congiuntivo/Subjunctive Il presente che io compri che noi compriamo che tu compri che voi compriate che lui, lei, Lei compri che essi, Loro comprino Esempi Preferisco che tu compri i girasoli invece dei mughetti. - I prefer that you buy the sunflowers instead of the lilies. Il passato io abbia comprato noi abbiamo comprato tu abbia comprato voi abbiate comprato lui, lei, Lei abbia comprato essi, Loro abbiano comprato Esempi Spero che abbiate comprato abbastanza vino per la festa. - I hope that you all bought enough wine for the party. LÃ¢â¬â¢imperfetto io comprassi noi comprassimo tu comprassi voi compraste lui, lei, Lei comprasse essi, Loro comprassero Esempi Era strano che lei non comprasse i libri per il corso. - It was strange that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t buy the books for the course. Il trapassato prossimo io avessi comprato noi avessimo comprato tu avessi comprato voi aveste comprato lui, lei, Lei avesse comprato essi, Loro avessero comprato Esempi Pensavo che tu avessi gi comprato lÃ¢â¬â¢anello! - I thought you had already bought the ring! Condizionale/Conditional Il presente io comprerei noi compreremmo tu compreresti voi comprereste lui, lei, Lei comprerebbe essi, Loro comprerebbero Esempi: Comprerei tutto in questo negozio! - I would buy everything in this shop! Il passato io avrei comprato noi avremmo comprato tu avresti comprato voi avreste comprato lui, lei, Lei avrebbe comprato essi, Loro avrebbero comprato Se non ti dicevo che ero allergica, Ã avresti comprato le rose rosse vero? - If I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you I was allergic, you would have bought the red roses, right?
Monday, March 2, 2020
Battle of Monte Cassino in World War II The Battle of Monte Cassino was fought January 17 to May 18, 1944, during World War II (1939-1945). Fast Facts: Battle of Monte Cassino Dates: January 17 to May 18, 1944, duringÃ World War IIÃ (1939-1945).Allies Armies and CommandersGeneral Sir Harold AlexanderLieutenant General Mark ClarkLieutenant General Oliver LeeseUS Fifth Army British Eighth ArmyGerman Armies and CommandersField Marshal Albert KesselringColonel General Heinrich von VietinghoffGerman 10th Army Background Landing in Italy in September 1943, Allied forces under General Sir Harold Alexander began pushing up the peninsula. Due to the Apennine Mountains, which run the length of Italy, Alexanders forces advanced on two fronts with the Lieutenant General Mark Clarks US Fifth Army on the east and Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Montgomerys British Eighth Army on the west. Allied efforts were slowed by poor weather, rough terrain, and a tenacious German defense. Slowly falling back through the fall, the Germans sought to buy time to complete the Winter Line south of Rome. Though the British succeeded in penetrating the line and capturing Ortona in late December, heavy snows prevented them from pushing west along Route 5 to reach Rome. Around this time, Montgomery departed for Britain to aid in planning the invasion of Normandy and was replaced by Lieutenant General Oliver Leese. To the west of the mountains, Clarks forces moved up Routes 6 and 7. The latter of these ceased to be usable as it ran along the coast and had been flooded at the Pontine Marshes. As a result, Clark was forced to use Route 6 which passed through the Liri Valley. The southern end of the valley was protected by large hills overlooking the town of Cassino and atop which sat the abbey of Monte Cassino. The area was further protected by the fast-flowing Rapido and Garigliano Rivers which ran west to east. Recognizing the defensive value of the terrain, the Germans built the Gustav Line section of the Winter Line through the area. Despite its military value, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring elected not to occupy the ancient abbey and informed the Allies and Vatican of this fact. First Battle Reaching the Gustav Line near Cassino on January 15, 1944, the US Fifth Army immediately began preparations to assault the German positions. Though Clark felt the odds of success were low, an effort needed to be made to support the Anzio landings which would occur further north on January 22. By attacking, it was hoped that German forces could be drawn south to allow Major General John Lucas US VI Corps to land and quickly occupy the Alban Hills in the enemy rear. It was thought that such a maneuver would compel the Germans to abandon the Gustav Line. Hampering Allied efforts was the fact the Clarks forces were tired and battered after a fighting their way north from Naples (Map). Moving forward on January 17, the British X Corps crossed the Garigliano River and attacked along the coast putting heavy pressure on the German 94th Infantry Division. Having some success, X Corps efforts forced Kesselring to send the 29th and 90th Panzer Grenadier Divisions south from Rome to stabilize the front. Lacking sufficient reserves, X Corps was unable to exploit their success. On January 20, Clark launched his main assault with the US II Corps south of Cassino and near San Angelo. Though elements of the 36th Infantry Division were able to cross the Rapido near San Angelo, they lacked armored support and remained isolated. Savagely counterattacked by German tanks and self-propelled guns, the men from the 36th Division were ultimately forced back. Four days later, an attempt was made north of Cassino by Major General Charles W. Ryders 34th Infantry Division with the goal of crossing the river and wheeling left to strike Monte Cassino. Crossing the flooded Rapido, the division moved into the hills behind the town and gained a foothold after eight days of heavy fighting. These efforts were supported by the French Expeditionary Corps to the north which captured Monte Belvedere and assaulted Monte Cifalco. Though the French were unable to take Monte Cifalco, the 34th Division, enduring incredibly harsh conditions, battled their way through the mountains towards the abbey. Among the issues faced by Allied forces were large areas of exposed ground and rocky terrain that precluded digging foxholes. Attacking for three days in early February, they were unable to secure the abbey or the neighboring high ground. Spent, II Corps was withdrawn on February 11. Second Battle With the removal of II Corps, Lieutenant General Bernard Freybergs New Zealand Corps moved forward. Pushed into planning a new assault to relieve pressure on the Anzio beachhead, Freyberg intended to continue the attack through mountains north of Cassino as well as advance up the railroad from the southeast. As planning moved forward, debate began among the Allied high command regarding the abbey of Monte Cassino. It was believed that German observers and artillery spotters were using the abbey for protection. Though many, including Clark, believed the abbey to be vacant, increasing pressure ultimately led Alexander to controversially order the building to be bombed. Moving forward on February 15, a large force of B-17 Flying Fortresses, B-25 Mitchells, and B-26 Marauders struck the historic abbey. German records later showed that their forces were not present, through the 1st Parachute Division moved into the rubble after the bombing. On the nights of February 15 and 16, troops from the Royal Sussex Regiment attacked positions in the hills behind Cassino with little success.Ã These efforts were hampered by friendly fire incidents involving Allied artillery due to the challenges of aiming accurately in the hills. Mounting his main effort on February 17, Freyberg sent forward the 4th Indian Division against German positions in the hills. In brutal, close-in fighting, his men were turned back by the enemy. To the southeast, 28th (MÃ ori) Battalion succeeded in crossing the Rapido and captured the Cassino railroad station. Lacking armor support as the river could not be spanned, they were forced back by German tanks and infantry on February 18. Though the German line had held, the Allies had come close to a breakthrough which concerned the commander of the German Tenth Army, Colonel General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, who oversaw the Gustav Line. Third Battle Reorganizing, Allied leaders began planning a third attempt to penetrate the Gustav Line at Cassino. Rather than continue along previous avenues of advance, they devised a new plan which called for an assault on Cassino from the north as well as an attack south into the hill complex which would then turn east to assault the abbey. These efforts were to be preceded by intense, heavy bombing which would require three days of clear weather to execute.Ã As a result, the operation was postponed three weeks until the airstrikes could be executed. Moving forward on March 15, Freybergs men advanced behind a creeping bombardment. Though some gains were made, the Germans rallied quickly and dug in. In the mountains, Allied forces secured key points known Castle Hill and Hangmans Hill. Below, the New Zealanders had succeeded in taking the railroad station, though fighting in the town remained fierce and house-to-house. On March 19, Freyberg hoped to turn the tide with the introduction of the 20th Armoured Brigade. His assault plans were quickly spoiled when the Germans mounted heavy counterattacks on Castle Hill drawing in the Allied infantry. Lacking infantry support, the tanks were soon picked off one by one. The next day, Freyberg added the British 78th Infantry Division to the fray. Reduced to house to house fighting, despite the addition of more troops, Allied forces were unable to overcome the resolute German defense. On March 23, with his men exhausted, Freyberg halted the offensive. With this failure, Allied forces consolidated their lines and Alexander began devising a new plan for breaking the Gustav Line. Seeking to bring more men to bear, Alexander created Operation Diadem. This saw the transfer of the British Eighth Army across the mountains. Victory at Last Redeploying his forces, Alexander placed Clarks Fifth Army along the coast with II Corps and the French facing the Garigliano. Inland, Leeses XIII Corps and Lieutenant General Wladyslaw Anders 2nd Polish Corps opposed Cassino. For the fourth battle, Alexander desired II Corps to push up Route 7 towards Rome while the French attacked across the Garigliano and into the Aurunci Mountains on the west side of the Liri Valley. To the north, XIII Corps would attempt to force the Liri Valley, while the Poles circled behind Cassino and with orders to isolate the abbey ruins. Utilizing a variety of deceptions, the Allies were able to ensure that Kesselring was unaware of these troop movements (Map). Commencing at 11:00 PM on May 11 with a bombardment using over 1,660 guns, Operation Diadem saw Alexander attack on all four fronts. While II Corps met heavy resistance and made little headway, the French advanced quickly and soon penetrated the Aurunci Mountains before daylight. To the north, XIII Corps made two crossings of the Rapido. Encountering a stiff German defense, they slowly pushed forward while erecting bridges in their rear. This allowed supporting armor to cross which played a key role in the fighting. In the mountains, Polish attacks were met with German counterattacks. By late on May 12, XIII Corps bridgeheads continued to grow despite determined counterattacks by Kesselring. The next day, II Corps began to gain some ground while the French turned to strike the German flank in the Liri Valley. With his right wing wavering, Kesselring began pulling back to the Hitler Line, approximately eight miles to the rear.Ã On May 15, the British 78th Division passed through the bridgehead and began a turning movement to cut off the town from the Liri Valley. Two days later, the Poles renewed their efforts in the mountains. More successful, they linked up with the 78th Division early on May 18. Later that morning, Polish forces cleared the abbey ruins and hoisted Polish flag over the site. Aftermath Pressing up the Liri Valley, the British Eighth Army immediately attempted to break through the Hitler Line but was turned back. Pausing to reorganize, a major effort was made against the Hitler Line on May 23 in conjunction with a breakout from the Anzio beachhead. Both efforts were successful and soon the German Tenth Army was reeling and facing being surrounded. With VI Corps surging inland from Anzio, Clark shockingly ordered them to turn northwest for Rome rather than cut off and aid in the destruction of von Vietinghoff. This action may have been the result of Clarks concern that the British would enter the city first despite it being assigned to Fifth Army. Driving north, his troops occupied the city on June 4. Despite the success in Italy, the Normandy landings two days later transformed it into a secondary theater of the war. Selected Sources BBC: Battle of Monte CassinoHistory: Battle of Monte Cassino
Friday, February 14, 2020
Domestic and Nominated Subcontractor - Essay Example Domestic Subcontractor Domestic subcontractor is one whose selection and appointment is completely taken care by the main contractor. The employer plays no part in the selection or the appointment process except for giving consent to the selection and appointment if it is required under the contractual agreement between the employer and main contractor1. Roles and Responsibilities of Employer The roles and responsibilities of an employer with respect to a domestic subcontractor are very limited. The complete responsibility of a domestic subcontractor lies on the main contractor. The employer will play no role in the selection and appointment of a domestic subcontractor, until and unless it is required by the terms and conditions in the agreement. The employer shall be responsible for the subcontractor only if it is stated with a particular condition in the contract. Nominated Subcontractor As per the FIDIC 1999 red book, the definition of a nominated subcontractor is as follows: Ã¢â ¬Å"Nominated SubcontractorÃ¢â¬ means a subcontractor: a) Who is stated in the contract as being a nominated subcontractor, b) Whom the engineer, under the clause 13 [Variations and adjustments] instructs the contractor to employ as a subcontractor2. Nominated subcontractor is one where the employer approves, selects or nominates a contractor to carry out a specific task or a subcontract. In order to understand the roles and responsibilities of the employer with respect to a nominated subcontractor, it is first necessary to understand the reasons behind using such a system. There are numerous benefits associated with nominating a subcontractor for an employer. One of the main benefits is that the process of nominated subcontractor gives the employer certain control over the selection of suppliers or subcontractors. This control over the choice and the required performance from the subcontractor ensures certain level of quality for the employer. This privilege is without having to be directly involved with the subcontractor. The choice of subcontractor is entirely rested with the employer even though the main contractor needs to approve the subcontractor. Another benefit is that the employer need not get into any contractual agreement with the subcontractor. This is because the nominated subcontractor will enter into a contract with main contractor and not the employee directly. Hence, the employer will not have any contractual arrangements with the nominated subcontracts. Also there are other reasons that might be responsible for the nomination of a subcontractor such as the proven track record of nominated subcontractor, low pricing or high quality or even certain combination of the two, long term relationship between the employer and subcontractor, etc. The employer can also have a say in the terms and conditions of the subcontractor such as pricing and scope of work. One of the specific situations, where nominated subcontractors are used is when there is a need for a subcontractor to start working prior to the appointment of a main contractor. Such a situation would arise when a specialist task takes more time to complete than the actual construction programme. Hence, in such situations it becomes very beneficial to use a nominated subcontractor. Roles and Responsibilities of Employer Following are the roles and res